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Phenethylamine: is an organic compound and a natural monoamine alkaloid, a trace amine, and also the name of a class of chemicals with many members that are well known for their psychoactive and stimulant effects.[5] It functions as a monoaminergic neuromodulator and, to a lesser extent, a neurotransmitter in the human central nervous system. (1)has been linked to the regulation of physical energy, mood, and attention (2)has a neurotransmitter role It is commonly referred to as the Love Drug and is famous for being the component in chocolate that makes cocoa so appealing. More recently, nootropic users have been investigating the cognitive enhancement and mood boosting effects Phosphatidyl-serine: is an important component of the cell membrane which plays a key role in cell cycle signaling, specifically in relationship to apoptosis. In May, 2003 the Food and Drug Administration gave “qualified health claim” status to phosphatidylserine thus allowing labels to state “consumption of phosphatidylserine may reduce the risk of dementia and cognitive dysfunction in the elderly” (3) The concentrated phosphatidyl serine (PS) derived from soy phospholipids and clinical studies have shown that when it is taken on a regular basis, it can help adults maintain and improve learning and memory. The results of the studies showed conclusively that, in mature adults, PS helped maintain cognition, concentration, and related mental functions. (4) significant improvement with the following functions:
  • Name-Face Recall. Learning and matching of names with faces.
  • First-Last Names. First and last names presented, then last names given for pairing with the first names. Also assesses verbal memory.
  • Face Recognition. A test of visual memory.
  • Grocery List. To help assess verbal learning and memory.
  • Telephone Dialing. Memorize and retain a telephone number, under different conditions of delay and distraction.
  • Misplaced Objects. Placement and recall of keys, glasses, other common household objects — verbal-visual associative memory.
  • Divided Attention. Simulates driving a car, also recall of radio reports while driving. Reaction time and verbal vocabulary memory. (5)
Phosphatidylserine also appears to protect against the stress response and to reduce anxiety (6) And showed positive effects on daily functioning and emotional state (7) BioPerine: Nutrient Absorption Enhancer is the one supplement that makes all others work better. Bioperine, a standardized extract from black pepper (piper nigrum), is the only product from piperine to obtain a patented status for its ability to increase the bioavailability of nutritional compounds. It is also the only source from piperine to have undergone clinical studies in the U.S. to substantiate its safety and effectiveness. Vinpocetine: Vinpocetine is reported to have cerebral blood-flow enhancing (8) and neuroprotective effects, (9) and widely marketed as a supplement for vasodilation and as a nootropic for the improvement of memory and cerebral metabolism. Vinpocetine’s absorption into the brain via the blood brain barrier is rapid and nearly complete, and vinpocetine appears to accumulate in the brain shortly after ingestion. (10)(11) Vinpocetine appears to enhance cerebral blood flow (12) and it has mechanisms to increase memory improvement, (13) formation, enhancement(14) and reaction speed. (15) Huperzine: It is a reversible acetylcholinesterase inhibitor(16)(17)(18)and NMDA receptor antagonist(19) that crosses the blood-brain barrier.(20) Has the ability to improve memory and mental function. (21) Huperzine acts as a cholinesterase inhibitor — a type of medication that works by improving the levels of neurotransmitters in the brain to improve memory and protect nerve cells. It may significantly improve cognitive performance and appears to have many protective effects on the brain. (22) (23) (24) (25) (26) (1) (2) Sabelli H, Fink P, Fawcett J, et al. Sustained antidepressant effects of PEA replacement. J Neuropsychiatry1996;8:168–71. [Medline][Web of Science] (3) Taylor, Christine L. (May 13, 2003). “Phosphatidylserine and Cognitive Dysfunction and Dementia (Qualified Health Claim: Final Decision Letter)”. Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition, U.S. Food and Drug Administration. Retrieved 23 August 2014. (4) Kidd, Parris M., Ph.D. “Phosphatidyl serine and Aging.” Healthy & Natural Journal 2.5. (5) Crook, T. H., et al. “Effects of phosphatidyl serine in age-associated memory impairment.” Neurology 41 (1991): 644–649. (6) Monteleone, P., et al., Effects of phosphatidylserine on the neuroendocrine response to physical stress in humans. Neuroendocrinol, 52:243-249, 1990. (7) Gindin, J., et al. 1990, Effect of Soy Lecithin Phosphatidylserine (PS) Treatment on Daily Functioning and Self-Reportcd General Condition in Patients with Alzheimer’s Disease, The Geriatric Institute of Education and Research Kaplan Medical Centre, Rehovot, and Hadassah Medical School, Hebrew University of Jerusalem, Israel. (8) Szilágyi, G. Z.; Nagy, Z. N.; Balkay, L. S.; Boros, I. N.; Emri, M. S.; Lehel, S.; Márián, T. Z.; Molnár, T. S.; Szakáll, S.; Trón, L.; Bereczki, D. N.; Csiba, L. S.; Fekete, I. N.; Kerényi, L.; Galuska, L. S.; Varga, J. Z.; Bönöczk, P. T.; Vas, Á. M.; Gulyás, B. Z. (2005). “Effects of vinpocetine on the redistribution of cerebral blood flow and glucose metabolism in chronic ischemic stroke patients: A PET study”. Journal of the Neurological Sciences. 229-230: 275–284. doi:10.1016/j.jns.2004.11.053. PMID 15760651. (9) Dézsi, L.; Kis-Varga, I.; Nagy, J.; Komlódi, Z.; Kárpáti, E. (2002). “Neuroprotective effects of vinpocetine in vivo and in vitro. Apovincaminic acid derivatives as potential therapeutic tools in ischemic stroke”. Acta pharmaceutica Hungarica 72 (2): 84–91. PMID 12498034. (10) Gulyás B, et al PET studies on the brain uptake and regional distribution of {11C}vinpocetine in human subjects . Acta Neurol Scand. (2002) (11) Bönöczk P, et al Role of sodium channel inhibition in neuroprotection: effect of vinpocetine . Brain Res Bull. (2000) (12) The effect of an acute infusion of vincamine and ethyl apovincaminate on cerebral blood flow in healthy volunteers (13) 1-Oxa-3,8-diazaspiro{4.5}decan-2-one derivatives with a potent inhibitory effect on neural Ca-uptake and protecting action against TET-induced brain edema and memory and learning deficits (14) Paróczai M, Kiss B, Kárpáti E Effect of RGH-2716 on learning and memory deficits of young and aged rats in water-labyrinth . Brain Res Bull. (1998) (15) Subhan Z, Hindmarch I Psychopharmacological effects of vinpocetine in normal healthy volunteers . Eur J Clin Pharmacol. (1985) (16) Meletis, Chris D. and Jason E. Barke (2004). Herbs and Nutrients for the Mind: A Guide to Natural Brain Enhancers. Greenwood Publishing Group. p. 191. ISBN 0275983943. (17) Wang BS, Wang H, Wei ZH, Song YY, Zhang L, Chen HZ (2009). “Efficacy and safety of natural acetylcholinesterase inhibitor huperzine a in the treatment of Alzheimer’s disease: An updated meta-analysis”. Journal of neural transmission (Vienna, Austria : 1996) 116 (4): 457–65. doi:10.1007/s00702-009-0189-x. PMID 19221692. (18) Tang XC, He XC, Bai DL (1999). “Huperzine A: A novel acetylcholinesterase inhibitor”. Drugs of the Future 24 (6): 647. doi:10.1358/dof.1999.024.06.545143. (19) Coleman BR, Ratcliffe RH, Oguntayo SA, Shi X, Doctor BP, Gordon RK, Nambiar MP (2008). “+-Huperzine a treatment protects against N-methyl-D-aspartate-induced seizure/status epilepticus in rats”. Chemico-biological interactions 175 (1–3): 387–95. (20) Patocka J (1998). “Huperzine A–an interesting anticholinesterase compound from the Chinese herbal medicine”. Acta Medica (Hradec Kralove) 41 (4): 155–7. PMID 9951045. (21) Talbott, SM (2012). Huperzine A (HupA). A Guide to Understanding Dietary Supplements (Routledge). pp. 304–. ISBN 978-1-136-80570-7. (22) Yang G, et al. Huperzine A for Alzheimer’s disease: A systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized clinical trials. PLOS One. 2013;8:e74916. (23) Alternative treatments. Alzheimer’s Association. Accessed Sept. 26, 2014. (24) Xing S, et al. Huperzine A in the treatment of Alzheimer’s disease and vascular dementia: A meta-analysis. Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine. 2014;2014:363985. In press. Accessed Sept. 26, 2014. (25) Li J, et al. Huperzine A for Alzheimer’s disease. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews. Accessed Sept. 26, 2014. (26) Qian ZL, et al. Huperzine A: Is it an effective disease-modifying drug for Alzheimer’s disease? Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience. 2014;6:1.